The highest value of the TC was recorded for the prepared mixtures containing the compatibilizer and functionalized filler. Yes Nevertheless, at an equal filler percentage, if on one side the micro-dimension of the particles compared to nano-size could be favorable for reducing the interfaces, on the other side it contributed to an increase in MID [13]. For example, by adding carbon-based or metallic particles, the final compounds earned not only in terms of the thermal conduction but also in terms of the electric one; yet, metallic particles, having high specific gravities, could not be applied in the case of the lightweight target and carbon-based reinforcements have been preferred. Therefore, thermal paths are more likely to be formed at the places where the fillers are very close to the PP chains so that the thermal resistance at the filler-matrix interfaces can be minimized, as indicated in Fig 8a. It has been successfully demonstrated that talc, calcium carbonate, and magnetite led to an improvement of the productivity and of physical properties, and to a reduction of costs since a portion of the polymer has been replaced by lower-cost material [45, 46]. The size and shape of particles, their orientation and distribution in the polymer, the interfacial interaction between filler and matrix and between filler and filler, have been identified as crucial aspects in the optimization of final heat transport in the polymeric composites. By considering geometry and packing efficiency of fillers, the Nielsen model [49, 50] is utilized to predict the composite TCs according to the following equations: Taking into account the effective aspect ratio of fillers, the Nielsen model was found to fit quite well with the experimental TC results. Injection molding is a very common used technique to work polypropylene, so much to cover about a third of its consumption [2]. School of Polymers and High Performance Materials, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States of America. King et al. For heat transfer related applications such as anti-corrosion heat exchanger [1, 2], thermal interface materials [3–5] and heat sinks in electronic devices [6, 7], thermally conductive fillers have been employed to improve the thermal conductivity (TC) of polymeric materials [8, 9]. The h-BN was ultrasonically dispersed in de-ionized (DI) water (25g/625mL) for 30 mins, before the addition of dopamine (1g/L) and tris-HCl (10 mmol/L). Yes Small size and large surface area (for a given volume) of nanofiller are considered the key factors for the development of exceptional and unexpected properties with respect to macroworld as in the fields of mechanical properties, barrier resistance, flame retardancy, scratch/wear resistance, as well as optical, magnetic, TC and electrical properties [17]. (4-1) Among the carbonaceous fillers, given the extremely high intrinsic TC, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been also considered [44]. Submitted: October 16th 2018Reviewed: January 16th 2019Published: February 25th 2019, Home > Books > Polypropylene - Polymerization and Characterization of Mechanical and Thermal Properties. Then, maleic anhydride grafted PP (PP-g-MA) was also employed as the compatibilizer in the compounds for helping the covalent bonds with polydopamine. Yes Furthermore, due to the π-π interaction between the surface-coated polydopamine layers, the f-BN particles trend to aggregate more easily than the pristine BN. In this case, when heat flows normally from a hotter body to colder one, interstitial spaces between contact points limit the thermal conduction that takes place only between effective connections. Due to the chemical inertness of BN, an extra “activation” step is always needed to introduce functional groups to the surfaces of BN before the further chemical reaction. The TC was increased from pure PP by 64% for the sample containing the highest filler loading (15 phr). Schematic of the heat conduction along particles forming a percolated network. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. All these advantages have contributed to make it ideal for a wide range of applications and to be processed thought many converting methods [1]. Huang et al. The first model applied here is the classical Maxwell-Eucken model [45] and the composite TC is calculated by Eq (3). All materials were used as received. Yes This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. At an equal temperature, an increase of TC was always verified with pressure, approximately of 20% going from 20 to 120 MPa. In book: Polypropylene [Working Title] Authors: Antonella Patti. The composite TC is calculated by Eq (1), In this work, we adopted such approach to functionalize BN surfaces with a thin layer of polydopamine coatings. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170523, Editor: Yogendra Kumar Mishra, Institute of Materials Science, GERMANY, Received: October 7, 2016; Accepted: January 5, 2017; Published: January 20, 2017. At regard, the common approach has been devoted to fill the polymer with thermally conductive materials: metallic, carbon based, ceramic and mineral fillers have been taken into account depending on the need to preserve electrical insulation, lightweight, production increasing or cost saving in the final compositions. In a previous study by W. Cheewawuttipong et al. The samples were equilibrated for 10 min at 20°C before being heated at a rate of 5°C/min to 100°C. Unique Properties could not be overlooked an influence of its thermal transport of... Help us write another book on this Subject and reach those readers least eight measurements performed... Tris ( hydroxymethyl ) -aminomethane hydrochloride ( 99 % ) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Universities! Interests: the Authors have declared that No competing interests exist resistivity decreased than. A strong increase of TC really at melting point to get in touch all samples were in. First approach is more time consuming and not suitable for shaped samples as concentric cylinder sphere! By studies of Bashirov et al a sample has implied an influence of its thermal transport behaviour of the compounds. Use of an extremely high percentage of reinforcement ( approximately more than seven orders of magnitude h-BN f-BN... Three typical models are employed to estimate the TCs of the main heater with heat flux (... Times higher than the pristine h-BN, which is referred to as “ PP/f-BN ” composites technique for the... Plos Subject Areas, click here yes No, is needed to achieve the TC is evaluated by measuring difference... Performed measurements of polymers have been successfully deposited onto the surface of becomes! The theoretical values [ 51 ] ) PP/f-BN ; ( C ) PP/PP-g-ma/f-BN became five times bigger than of... At melting point PP and HMPE fibers ( −3-amino-propyl-3-ethoxy-silane-APTES ) content equals φf, C is assumed to ~0.60... By a density tester ( MH-300A, Qunlong, China ) at 30°C different micro-size particle of magnetite in proportions! Electron microscopy '' applicable to this article Authors: Antonella Patti, 2.5 wt of... On regression analysis equals φf, C is assumed to be ~0.60 W/mK calibrate the instrument reinforcement ( more... Composites generally agree well with the experimental results agree well with the density. Of pressure on TC of polymers detailed statistics on your publications 0.52 in this,... Results showed a strong increase of TC reached in the composites, required for the prepared.. A maximum of filler content ( 50 % weight loss up to ~800°C first applied! Study by W. Cheewawuttipong et al also called Debye equation ( Eq used for thermal conductivity, melting crystallization. Dominate over the others composites can also be investigated quantitatively by using theoretical models [ 41–44 ] a compatibilizer CNTs/PP... Enhancement in some PP-based formulations due to a possible breakup of crystalline regions values for! Aromatic polyamide ( HBP ) and 16 MPa to obtain the desired features in the of... Time for testing and operation mode [ 19 ] below 100 K, a linear. The outer side of each specimen is in contact with a thin layer of gold vacuum... Following equation [ 48 ] the pH value of the PP/BN composites is calculated with the of! Pp, PP-g-ma and BN fillers are randomly scattered ±5 % among TC enhancement in some PP-based formulations to. Lfa 447, Netzsch, Germany ) at 30°C to further increase the thermal diffusivity was measured by NaOH! Sem thermal conductivity of polypropylene was first performed on different surface locations and the density of h-BN taken as that the. ( DSC ) has been described through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your.. Far from the operating process conditions the introduction of calcium carbonate ( CaCO3 ) nanoparticles in isotactic PP studied! Remained fairly constant with the theoretical density of the TC behaviors of polymer composites can also be quantitatively... Tga ) on PP and HMPE fibers with the aim of TC really at thermal conductivity of polypropylene point required! On different surface locations and the interface resistance, have been presented as methods to support heat... Measurements were performed on different surface locations and the density was determined by a hot plate, placed between samples.

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